How is TPRI Administered?
To ensure accurate and reliable administration of the TPRI, the teacher should read through the Administration Guidelines for the appropriate grade level BEFORE administering the TPRI to any student.
Before starting to Administer, be sure to have your kit materials ready. You’ll need:
- The Teacher's Guide containing introductory information about the instrument as well as directions for task administration
- Copies of the Student Record Sheet (one per student to be assessed)
- Depending on the grade level, materials such as alphabet letters, magnetic board, stop watch, reading comprehension story booklet and task cards
Administration Guidelines for All Grades
- Administer the TPRI within a 2-week period. If possible, administer the Screening Section to all students within a 1-week period.
- Classroom teachers should administer the TPRI to their own students. If multiple teachers provide reading instruction for a student, the TPRI should be administered by the teacher most responsible for providing reading instruction.
- Administer the TPRI to only one student at a time. The exception is the grade 2 and grade 3 Spelling task (GK-1 Spelling), which may be administered to the entire class or to small groups simultaneously. Spelling results should be scored and recorded after the administration is completed.
- Make sure the assessment environment is adequately lighted, relatively quiet and free from distractions.
- Use the Teacher’s Guide with every student assessed to ensure accurate and consistent administration. The materials for each task are listed at the top of the task in the Teacher’s Guide, as well as directions on task administration. What you say to the student while testing always appears in bold print.
- If a task includes Practice Items, always present all items. Practice Items allow the student to gain a better understanding of what the task requires.
- Instructions may be repeated as needed. Repeat PA items only in case of noisy interferences. Other assessment items may be repeated if requested by the student.
- Record scores on the Student Record Sheet as you administer the assessment; don’t wait until you’ve finished. As the student responds to each item, record 1 for a correct response or 0 for an incorrect response.
- While administering the assessment, do not provide hints, clues or other feedback about correct responses.
- Be equally positive and encouraging with both correct and incorrect responses. Praise effort, not correct responses. Students should leave the administration feeling good about their performance.
- Be aware of students who are losing interest, easily distracted or exhibiting frustration; these behaviors often invalidate results. The Inventory Section does not have to be administered in one sitting. While most students will be able to complete the TPRI during a single administration session, some are easily bored or frustrated and should be given a break or allowed to complete the TPRI at another time. If necessary, discontinue assessment following the completion of a task and resume at the soonest appropriate point — but don’t interrupt a task (e.g., don’t stop testing at item 3 if there are five items on the task). Whenever possible, complete each portion of the Inventory without a break.
- After completing a task, follow the Branching Rules included throughout the assessment. These rules were established to reduce administration time and student frustration.
- In kindergarten and grade 1, administer the PA and/or GK portions of the Inventory to all students who score Still Developing (SD) on the Screening Section; the Branching Rules will guide you appropriately. If you have sufficient time, you may choose to give the PA and GK portions of the Inventory to some or all students who score Developed (D) on the Screening Section. Administering the PA and GK portions to these students may provide additional data to help set learning objectives and plan instruction. In all cases, when administering the PA and GK portions of the Inventory, begin with the first task and then follow the Branching Rules and the rules for Jumping-In at MOY and EOY (see Jumping-In: Guidelines for Middle- and End-of-Year Administration).
Guidelines for Phonemic Awareness Tasks
- Administer all PA tasks orally.
- On PA tasks, segment the phonemes in the word as indicated on the Student Record Sheet. As you divide words into their component sounds, it’s important to avoid distorting individual sounds.
- When administering blending tasks, remember to say the word silently to yourself first so you pronounce the phonemes as they appear in the word. For example, if the word is /g/ /a/ /te/ (gate), the /a/ is pronounced as a long a.
- Some sounds need special attention. Minimize the tendency to add a vowel sound after a consonant sound, especially for unvoiced consonants such as /p/, /k/ and /t/. For example, the letter p is not pronounced /puh/. Rather, it should be spoken in a loud whisper and clipped manner. Don’t use your vocal cords for the unvoiced sounds /p/, /k/ and /t/.
- Voiced consonants such as /g/ and /b/ cannot be pronounced without a vowel sound. It’s important, however, to keep the vowel sound as short as possible with words containing voiced consonants. For example, the sound for the letter g is clipped; it’s not pronounced /guh/.
- Continuant consonants such as /m/, /f/ and /n/ should not be followed by a vowel sound. They can, however, be continued slightly. For example, you may say /mmm/, but not /muh/.
- To pronounce vowel sounds, simply lengthen the sound of the vowel.
Guidelines for Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Comprehension(G1-G3)
- Have the Reading Comprehension Story Booklet, Student Record Sheet, stopwatch and pen/pencil ready.
- Tell the student, I’m going to ask you to read a story. The title of the story is ___. After you read it, I’ll ask you a few questions. Read the story out loud to me. Place the Story Booklet in front of the student.
- Start the stopwatch when the student reads the first word.
- As the student reads, mark any words not read correctly with a slash (/) on the Student Record Sheet.
- Errors include:
- Mispronunciations – The student pronounces the word incorrectly. This includes leaving off -s, -ed and -ing endings.
- Substitutions – The student replaces the correct word with a different word.
- Omissions – The student skips a word.
- Reversals – The student reads adjacent words in the wrong order.
- Hesitations – The student pauses for longer than 3 seconds or takes longer than 3 seconds to sound out a word. In these cases, provide the word and count it as an error.
- Items not considered errors:
- Insertions – The student adds a whole word that does not appear in the text.
- Self-corrections – The student makes an error, but then corrects the error.
- Repetitions – The student reads the same word or phrase multiple times.
- Loss of place – The student skips a line or loses their place. Redirect the student to the correct place in the story and allow the stopwatch to continue to run.
- If the student reads the same word throughout a story incorrectly, count each incorrect word as a separate error.
- If a student is unable to read three words in the first sentence of a story or reaches the Frustrational Level in a story, have the student stop. Record Fru on the Student Record Sheet. Read the story to the student to obtain a Listening Comprehension score.
- A student who is administered a story as Listening Comprehension may not receive a score of Developed (D) in Reading Comprehension.
The TPRI is designed to provide instructionally relevant information while minimizing, whenever possible, the amount of time required for administration (allowing you more time to teach). When administering the Inventory Section at MOY and EOY, consider student performance on the assessment earlier in the year. In kindergarten and grade 1, the PA and GK portions consist of increasingly difficult tasks. There’s no need to re-administer PA and GK tasks on which a student has previously scored Developed (D). In grades 1, 2 and 3 you also do not need to re-administer sets on the Word Reading task (WR-1) on which the student previously scored Developed (D). This practice is called Jumping-In.
Other parts of the Inventory Section are administered at all time points. Follow the Branching Rules closely so that you administer the assessment correctly at each time point.
Accommodations for Special Needs Students
Accommodations for students with special needs can be used in administering the TPRI. Decisions on accommodations should be made on an individual basis, taking into consideration the needs of the student and whether the student routinely receives the accommodation during classroom instruction. If the student has an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or an instructional plan developed by a Section 504 committee, it may assist you in deciding which accommodations are appropriate. The following accommodations are acceptable:
- Instructions can be signed to a student with a hearing impairment.
- A student can place a colored transparency over any material presented.
- A student can use a place marker.
- A student can spell words aloud in place of writing them. A scribe or the teacher should record the student’s responses.
- A student can use any other accommodation that is a routine part of their reading, writing or spelling instruction.
Guidelines for Special Education Students
The TPRI Screening and Inventory should be administered to all K-G3 special education students at their grade-level placement for reporting purposes per SB §28.006. In addition, one of the primary goals of the special education program is to provide students with disabilities access to the general education curriculum. Without knowing where students are functioning in relation to their grade-level curriculum, such access is not facilitated. However, once this information is obtained, the special education teacher may move between Inventory grade levels for instructional information to assist with setting appropriate goals. For example, even though a student is in grade 2, you may administer the kindergarten Inventory to acquire data for program planning.
The Individualized Education Program committee is charged with considering the student’s performance on statewide or districtwide assessments, as appropriate. Determining a student’s performance in relation to their current grade-level placement and then identifying specific objectives for instructional purposes, seems most appropriate.
Dialectical and Cultural Sensitivity
It’s important to be sensitive to students’ dialectic, linguistic and cultural diversity when administering the TPRI. When student and teacher don’t share the same dialect, scoring reliability can be jeopardized. Teachers must be sensitive to a student’s dialect, accent and speech peculiarities or impairments.
Flexibility, professional judgment and knowledge of students should always be used in scoring student responses. Remember: The TPRI is a tool for guiding classroom instruction. In general, it’s better to err on the side of caution by marking an error when you’re uncertain about how to score a response, whether it’s related to the student’s speech or other concerns. This will help ensure potential areas of difficulty are carefully considered when delivering instruction.